Engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook
It primarily consists of sketching the actual component, for example, a machine, with its exact dimensions. The scale of dimensions is suitably adjusted so as to properly fit within the contours of the drawing sheet. The book provides all aspects and detailed study of Engineering Drawing — Plane and Solid Geometry , a core subject for all branches of Engineering study, presented in a lucid manner and easy-to-follow style.
The textbook follows the first-angle method of orthographic projection, however, the third-angle projection method has not been completely ignored. The entire book is printed in two colors which enhances the utility of the book. In this Fifty-third Edition, some errors are rectified.
The earlier Fiftieth Edition of this text-book is thoroughly revised, extensively enlarged, completely updated. It has been one of the most comprehensive revisions since the book was first published.
We do not support any kind of piracy at all. These copies were provided only for the needy students who are financially weak but deserve more to learn.
Social Widget facebook [3. Search Required Pdf. Book is revised and enlarged by VM P Here we will provided complete syllabus for all Bihar Polytechnic students. The syllabus wa Civil 3rd sem Questions bank. Hello friends, There is new update for you, now civil 3rd sem Questions bank of foundation publication now uploaded here. This is free to Engineering Graphics Book download free!
About Book Here we will provided Engineering Book. Download Question bank of 3rd Sem Electronics Engineering! Inferior Logarithmic Spiral Trochoid Minoraxis Major axes Conics Curves Parabola Radiusvector Answercto Ex. A p i e c e o f s t r i n g i s tied tightly round the circumferenceof the semi-circle startine from P a n d f i n i s h i n ga t Q.
Draw the curve traced by the moving extremity oi the s r nn 8 , 4 8. An inextensibleitring is passed round the half-conefrom a point on the periphery and biought back to the same point. Find the shortest length of the string. Take the base-circle diameter of the half-cone as 60 mm and height Zs mrn.
Draw the curve traced out by the other end of the thread when it is completelv wound along the peripheryof the disc, keepingthe thread always tighi. A circus man rides a motor-bike inside a globe of 6 metres diameter. The motor-bike has the wheel of -l metre diameter. Draw the locus of the point on the circumferenceof the motor-bike wheel for one complete revolution. Adopt suitable scale, 5 1. The jet travels a horizontal distance of 2. Trace the path of the jet. A point on the circumferenceof the coin is in contact with the iable surface in the beginning and after one complete revolution.
Draw the curve traced by the point. Draw a tangent and a normal at any point on the curve. Draw a rectangleof mm x g5 mm.
Draw two parabolasin it with their axes bisecting each other. Two concentric discs of 40 mm and 50 mm diameters roll on the horizontal line ,,48 mm long. Both discs start at the same point and roll in the same direction. Name the curve and write practicaltpplications. Draw the of the circle. Assumethe startinS point to be on the verticalcentre line in the top view. Draw the projectionsof a helix having a helix-angleof 30″, on a cylinderof 75 mm diameter.
Drawthe projections diameter. Outsidediameterof the spring mm and pitch 50 mm. Projecttwo completeturns of a triangularthread,outside diameter mm, pitch25 mm and angle60″. A screw having triple-startsquarethread has outside diameter mm, lead mm and pitch 40 mm. Draw its projections. Draw a helix of one convolutionupon a cone, diameterof the base 75 mm, axis mm long and pitch 75 mm. Takeapex as the startingpoint for the curve.
A point P, startingfrom the base-circleof a cone, reachesthe apex, while movingaroundthe axisthroughtwo completeturns. Assumingthe parallelto the axis to be movementof P towardsthe apex measured uniformwith its movementaroundthe axis,draw the proiectionsand the developmentof the surfaceof the cone showingthe path of P in each,Diameterof the baseof the cone 75 mm; axis mm long.
A propellerscrewof 20 mm diameterhasa helicalbladeweldedon its surface. The diameterof the helix is 80 mm and the pitch is 50 mm. Projecttwo completeturns of the screwwith the blade. Two objectsA and 8, 10 m aboveand 7 m below the ground level are observedfrom the top of a tower 35 m high from respectively, of 45′ with the ground.
Boththe objectsmakean angleof depression the horizon. The horizontaldistancebetweenA and I is 20 m. Draw to scale, the projectionsof the objectsand the tower and find a the true distancebetweenA and B, and b the angleof depression of anotherobjectC situatedon the groundmidwaybetweenA and 8. An ant is travellingon a cylindricalsurfacein a circumferential directionat a uniformangularspeedin the clockwisedirectionas at a uniformratein advances observedfrom the top and simultaneously the axialdirection.
One of the planes is then rotated so that the first and third quadrant are opened out. The projections are shown on a flat surface in their respective positions either above or below or in xy. After rotation of the plane, these projections will be seen a s. The line joining a, and a which also is called a projector intersects xy at right angles at a point o.
It is quite evident from the pictorial view that ab : ,Aa, i. A point is situated in the secondquadrant: A point I fig. When the planes are rotated, both the views are seen above xy. A point is situated in the third quadrant: A p o i n t C f i g.
A point is situated in the fourth quadrant: A point E fig. Referringto fig. P and in front of the VP. General conclusions: i The line joining the top view and the front view of a point is always perpendicularto xy. The distance of a point from the V.
P and 3 cm in front of the V. P Draw its projections. P, its front view will be below xy and the top view above xy.
B, 40 mm above the H. D, 25 mm below the H. C, in both the H. P and the V. Protections of Points 17 2. A point P is 50 mm from both the referenceplanes. A A point P is 15 mm abovethe H. Projectionsof various points are given in fig. Find the distance of the point B from the V. Draw its proiections. A point A is situated in the first quadrant.
A point 30 mm above xy line is the plan-view of two points p and e. The elevation of P is 45 mm above the H. Draw the pro. Line containedby a plane perpendicularto both the referenceplanes.
Line parallel to one or both the planes fig. P a and b are the top views of the ends A and B respectively. The line joining a and b is the top view of , Hence, the top view ab is equal to A8. AB and is parallel to xy. Line contained by one or both the planes fig. Line FF is in both the planes. Line perpendicularto one of the planes fig. The point d’ is its fron view and the line cd is the top view.
Line inclined to one plane and parallel to the other: The inclination of a line to a plane is the angle which the line make with its prcjection on that plane, a L i n e P Q 1 t f i g.
P a n is parallel to the V. The projections [fig. P, tts front view p, q, and th top view pq will both be parallel to xy and equal to the true length Projections of StraiSht Lines 1 arallel :s enos f is the r to xY.
The inclinationis shown by the angle which R5. P, its top view is shorter than its true length. Hence, when a line is inclined to one plane and parallel to the other its ptojection on the plane to which it is inclined, is a line shorter than its true length but parallel to the reference line. As the line is in the H. P lts front view will be in xy. One end of the line is 1.
P and 2. Draw the projections of the line and determine its true length. As the line is parallel to the Vp. The line is parallel to the H. P and one of its ends is in the V. Draw the projections of the line and detetmine its inclination with the V. Join a with b. P X a Exercises 1. Its one end is in the H. P while the other is 50 mm above the H. RA line AC, i00 mm long, is in the H.
Two pegs fixed on a wall are 4. Line inclined to both the planes: a A l i n e A B f i g. The fron view a’ b’ is equal to AB and makes the angle 0 with xy Keeping the end A fixed and the angle 0 with the H. The front view a’ b2′ is shorter than ,48 and parallel to xy. The top view ab2 is equal to AB and makes an angle o with xy. Keeping the end A fixed and the angle o with the Vp. The point b3 lies on the projector through b3′.
The new top view ab3 is shorterthan ab2 i. AB and makes an angle 0 with xy. B is greater than o. Here also we find that, as long as the inclinationof AB w i t h t h e V.
Projectionsof lines inclined to both the planes: F r o m A r t. Similarly, from Art. P an g with the VP and the position of one end A. To draw its projections Mark the front view a’ and the top view a according to the give position of A fig. Througha’ and b’, draw lines cd and pq respective parallel to xy. Draw lines joining a with b2, and a, with b2,. True length of a straight line and its inclinationswith the referenceplanes: the ron he ium ver rrrd P When projections of a line are given, its true length and inclinations w i t h t h e p l a n e sa r e d e t e r m i n e db y t h e a p p l i c a t i o no f t h e f o l l o w i n gr u l e : When a line is parallel to a plane, its projection on that plane will show its true length and the true inclination with the other plane.
This is the exact reversal of the processes a d o p t e di n A r t s. P o r i n thc VP Method lll: Projectingthe views on auxiliary planes parallelto each view. The top view ab and the front view a’ b’ of a line AB are given. To determine its true length and the inclinations with the H. Method I: F i g. The angle o which it makes with xy is the inclination of AB with the V.
Refer to fie. P and the VP. Its H. Hence, when a line has an end in a plane, its trace upon that plar coincides with the projection of that end on that plane. Methods of determiningtracesof a line: Method I: Fig.
The V. The H. Projections of Straight Lines The point of intersection between c, d’-produced and C 1 D 1 – p r o d u c e di s t h e V T. Produce them to intersect at the H. Tracesof a Iine, the projectionsof which are perpendicular to xy Method ll must, therefore, be adopted as shown in fiB. Positionsof tracesof a l i n e : Although the line may be situated in the third quadrant, its both traces may be above or below xy, as shown in problem and in fig.
Draw a pro. Note that in fig. Problem 1O A point A is S0 mm below the H. P A paint B is ’10 mm above the H. The distance between the proiectors of A and B is 40 mm.
Draw the projectionsab and a,b, of the line AB. Draw the line 41 81 intersectinga, 6′ at the V. Simifarly,at the ends a and b, draw perpendicularsto ab, viz. P lt is inclined at 30′ to the H. Draw its ptojections. P and inclinedat 0 equalto 30″ to the H. With the same centre and radius equal to ab, draw an arc cutting rs in b2. Draw lines joining a with b2′ and br. Pand the end Q in the H. The tineis inclinei at 30″ to the H.
F and at 60″ to the V-P Draw its proiections. Its mid-point is in the V. P Dtaw its projections,if its end p is in the third quadrant and Q in the first quadrant. The front view and the top view of p will be below and above xy respectively,while those of e will be above and below xy respectively.
Project P1 Q1 to p1 91 on xy. With m’ as ceatre and radius equal Io m’ p2′ or m’ q2′, draw arcs cutting ab at p3′ and cd at q3′. P and 12 mm in front of the V. Draw the prcjections of AB and determine its inclinations with the H. Join a with b1. Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book.
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Textbook of Engineering Drawing – Engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook
The book ‘Engineering Drawing’ authored by ND Bhatt and published by CHAROTAR Publication. Book is revised and enlarged by VM Panchal and Pramod. Here you can download engineering drawing book by n.d bhatt in pdf DRAWING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES; SHEET LAYOUT AND FREE-HAND. The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been the recognised as a guide for practicing and student engineers to produc.
Engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook.Item Preview
This book accompanied by a computer CD as a novel pedagogical concept, containing 51 selected audiovisual animation modules presented for better visualization and understanding of the subject.
The solutions to exercises of Chapter 17, Isometric Projection and Chapter 20 Conversion of Views are given in this edition. Share B. D Bhatt pdf — Latest Edition to other engineering or diploma students and help them to download Engineering Drawing Book pdf.
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Book is revised and enlarged by VM P Here we will provided complete syllabus for all Bihar Polytechnic students. Assumethat the circle starts rolling to the right. When point 1, coincides -position with 1, centre C will move to Ct. The tangent at any point is perpendicularto the normal at that point. O is the point of contact and M is the position of the centre oi the generatinBcircle, when the Seneratingpoint P is at N. Sf is the tangent to the cycloid.
When the point is within the circle, the curve is called an inferior trochoid and when outside the circle, it is termed a superior trochoid.
Draw lines qP1, C2P2etc. With centres C1, C2 etc. Trochoids F t c. Inferior trochoid Ftc. N o t e that the radiusof the circle is equal to R2.
A loop is formed when the circle rolls for more than one revolution. When the circle rolls along another circle inside it, the curve is called a hypocycloid. Y Probfem , To draw an epicycloid and a hypocycloid, given the generating and directing circles of radii r and R respectively.
Epicycloid Frc. This arc Cg is the locus of the centre C. Hypocycloid Frc. Normal and tangent to an epicycloid and a hypocycloid: Problem D r a w a l i n e 5f through N and at right anglesto NM.
Sf is the tangent. Epitrochoid 1tig. Hypotrochoid fig. Inferior epitrochoid and hypotrochoid Flc. To draw an epitrochoid and a hypotrochoid, given the rolling and directing circles and the generaringpoint’s. Hypotrochoids Frc. With centre C, draw the given circle. Let p be the starting point, i. Draw the involute through the points p, p1, p Normal and tangent to an involute: The normal to an involute of a circle is tangent to that circle.
D r a w a l i n e 5I, perpendicularto NM and passingthrough N. Sf is the tangent to the involute. Let ABCD be the given square. Pl Frc. Tracethe paths of the endsof a straightline An 10O mm long, when it rolls, without slipping, on a semi-circle having its diametet A8,75 mm long.
Assumethe line Ap to be tangent to the semi-circle in the statting position. Similarly,mark points A1, 42 etc. Evolutes: APB is a given curve fig. O is the centre of a circle drawn through three points C, P and D on this curve.
The centre O of the circle of curvature lies on the normal to the curve at P. This centre is called the centre of curvatureat P. The locus of the centre of curvature of a curve is called the eyolute of the curve. A curve has only one evolute. Let P be the given point on the conic and f, the focus. Then O is the centre of curvatureof the conic at the point P. The above construction does not hold good when the given point coincides with the vertex.
As the point P approachesthe vertex, the points R, N and O move nearer to one another, so that when P is at the vertex, t h e t h r e e p o i n t s c o i n c i d eo n t h e a x i s. Then O is the required centre of curvature. Then 01 and 02 are the centres of curvature when the poini P is at A and C respectively. Join H with F. T h e n O i s the centre of curvature at the vertex y. Probfem , fig. To obtain ihe centre of curvature at the vertex, the position of the other focus f1 rnust be fou nd.
Op is the centre of curvature at the point P. Probtem The curve drawn through these centres is the evolute of the hypocycloid. Problem 6-J7. Iine joining any point on the curve with the pole is called the.. The rcdius vector and the angle betweenthis line and the line in its initial position is called the vectorialangle. Each complete revoiution of the curve is termed the convolution. Archemedianspiral: It is a curve traced out by a point moving in such a way that its movementtowards or away from the pole is uniform with the increase o [ l h e v e c t o r i a la n g l e f r o m t h e s t a r t i n gl i n e.
Problem 6. The constant of the curve is equal to the differencebetween the lengths of any two radii divided by the circular measureof the angle between them. Curves Used in Engineering ptactice Problem 6-a0.
During that period, a point P moving at uniform speed along the centie tine ol the tink from a point at a distance of 25 mm from O, reachesthe end of the link.
Draw the locus of the point P Flc. Logarithmicor equiangularspiral: ln a logarithmic spiral, the ratio of the lengths of consecutive radius vectors enclosingequal anglesis always constant. In other words the values of. The logarithmic spiral is also known as equiangularspiral because of. Again, with centre A and radius A1′ draw an arc cutting AB at 2. Through 2, draw a line ‘ parallel to DF and cutting AC at 2’.
Through O, draw radial lines making 30′ angles between two c o n s e c u t i v el i n e s. N f i s t h e required tangent. NR drawn perpendicularto Nf is the normal to the spiral. Helix: Helix is defined as a curve, generated by a point, moving around the s u r f a c eo f a. Helix upon a cone. A method of drawing a helical curve: Probfem Also to develop the surfaie of the cylinder showing the helix in it. The helix is seen as a straight line and is the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle having base equal to the circumference of the circle and the vertical side equal to the pitch of the helix.
The angle 0 which it makes with the base, is called the hellx angle. The helix angle can be expressedas tano: pitch circumference of the circle Helical springs: In a spring having a wire of square cross-section,the outer two corners of the section may be assumed to be moving around the axis, on the surface of a cylinder having a diameter equal to the outside diameter of the spring.
The pitch in case of each corner will be the same. Note carefully the visible and the hidden parts of the curves. When the wire is of circular cross-section,a helical curve for the centre of the cross-section is first traced out.
A number of circles of diameter equal to that of the cross-sectionare then drawn with a number of points on this curve as centres. In a screw thread, the pltch is defined as the distancefrom a point on a thread to a correspondingpoint on the adjacentthread, measuredparallel to the axis. Therefore, the pitch of the screw is equal to the pitch of the helix.
Unless stated otherwise, suews arc always assumedto be single-threaded. Curves Used in tngineering Practice Frc. The axial advance per revolution, viz. H e l i x u p o n a c o n e : This curve is traced out by a point which, while moving around the axis and on the surface of the cone, approachesthe apex.
The movement around the axis is uniform with its movement towards the apex, measured p a r a l l e lt o t h e a x i s. Also develop the surface of the cone, showing the helix on ii. Draw a horizontai line through A to cut the generatorso’ P at A,. Drcw the front. Only one-turn is sufficient. Curves Used in Engineering Practice i Draw a circleof meandiameterol 72 mm in the top view. Mark the divisions1, 2. With the intersection pointas centreand radiusequalto 5 mm, draw the circlesand the smoothcurvetouchingto the top and bottomof the circlesas shownin fig.
The motionimpartedmay be eitheruniformor variable,dependinguponthe shapeof lhe cam profile. Cam Ftc. The followers are generally provided with rollers to give smooth w o r k i n g. Vl Exercises 1. Plot at least B points.
Name each curve. Draw a normal and a tangent to each curve at a point on it, 50 mm from F. The vertex of a hyperbola is 65 mm from its focus. Draw the curve? The major axis of an ellipseis mm long and the minor axis is 1 0 0 m m l o n g. Cufves Used in Engineering Practice 7. Two fixed points A and B are mm apart.
P is a point 40 mm from OA and 50 mm from OB. Two points ,4 and B are 50 mm apart. Draw the curve traced out by a point p on the circumference,for one complete revolution of the circle. Name the curve. Draw a tangent to the curve at a point on it 40 mm from the line.
A circle of mm diameterrolls on anothercircle of ZS mm diameter with internal contact. D r a w t h e c u r v e traced out by a point P on the circumferenceof the circle. Keepingit always tight, the rope is wound round the pole O. Draw the curve traced out by the end A. Scale 1 full size. Draw the curve traced out by the point p. Draw a cam to give the following uniform motions to a point: Rise 4 0 m m i n 9 0 “. Draw the evolutesof the two curves,the data of which is given in Ex.
Construct the evolutes of the two curves. C o n s t r u c o t ne revolution of the spiral. Draw a tangent to the spiral at any point on it. ABC is an equilateraltriangle of side equal to Z0 mm.
Draw the shape of the cam to give the same motions as in Ex. Draw the shape of the cam. Diameter of shaft : 40 mm. A l i n k C D of 1 metre lengthis fixed to the ring C. This ratio is calledthe. It is in case of parabola, in case of hyperbolaano – i n c a s eo f e l l i p s e. The fixed lines are called List of words for Ex. Epitrochoid 2. Axis 3.
Cycloidal 1 1. Eccentricity 4. Conic 5. Llrcte Focus Greater than I 6. Cycloid 7. Directrix Hyperbola 8. Epicycloid Hypocycloid lar 1 7. Rectangu ‘1 Smallerthan Inferior Logarithmic Spiral Trochoid Minoraxis Major axes Conics Curves Parabola Radiusvector Answercto Ex. A p i e c e o f s t r i n g i s tied tightly round the circumferenceof the semi-circle startine from P a n d f i n i s h i n ga t Q.
Draw the curve traced by the moving extremity oi the s r nn 8 , 4 8. An inextensibleitring is passed round the half-conefrom a point on the periphery and biought back to the same point.
Find the shortest length of the string. Take the base-circle diameter of the half-cone as 60 mm and height Zs mrn. Draw the curve traced out by the other end of the thread when it is completelv wound along the peripheryof the disc, keepingthe thread always tighi.
A circus man rides a motor-bike inside a globe of 6 metres diameter. The motor-bike has the wheel of -l metre diameter. Draw the locus of the point on the circumferenceof the motor-bike wheel for one complete revolution. Adopt suitable scale, 5 1. The jet travels a horizontal distance of 2. Trace the path of the jet. Search the Wayback Machine Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. Sign up for free Log in. EMBED for wordpress. Want more? Advanced embedding details, examples, and help!
Publication date Topics Engineering drawing , engineering graphics Collection opensource Language English.
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Thank you for interesting in our services. We are a non-profit group that run this website to share documents. We need your help to maintenance this website. Please help us to share our service with your friends. Home Engineering Drawing – N. Читать статью Engineering Drawing – N. Share Embed Donate. Introduction: Drawings of small objects can be prepared of the same size as the. Drawings drawn Jf the same size as the objects, ar. A scale is defined as the ratio of the rineardimensionsof erement o f t h e o b j e c t.
The scale is indicated on thj drawing at a suitatlle”place thg title. The compiete designationof a scale c”onsistsof word scale :glr t o t i o w e d b y t h e r a t i oi. T h e продолжить are, -theretoreidrawn proportionately smaller or larger.
When drawings are drawn smaller than the actual. As the. Length of the drawing R. Ihe R. Such a drawing is said to be drawn the R. It may not be always possible to draw as long a scale engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook to measure the longest length in the drawing.
The scale is therefore drawn 15 cm to 30 cm long, Ionger lengths being measuredby marking them off in parts. Problem a’1. To set-off any distance,say 3. The distance between the ends of the two legs will represent3. Problem Thus, each horizontal line below ,48 becomes progressivelyshorter in length by AA giuing lengthsin fr m u l t i p l e so f 0.
T3t”‘j:o Any lengthbetween. I Aitr”n. To show a distanceol 1 yard,2 feet and Z inches, place one leg of the. Ingineeting Drawing Problem4’ The areaof a http://replace.me/5958.txt is 50, and B cm respectively’ ana tii iieuatn of tie field, on the map is 10 cm Mark the length m. Take 20 cm length and divide it into 5 equal parts.
Complete the scale as shown tn fig. Comparative scales: Scales having same engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook fraction. A drawing drawn with a.
Draw the scale showing I f, inch divisions and. Construct a comparativi scale showing centimetresand millimetres. Problem 4. Construct this scale to read miles and to measure upto 40 miles. Constructa comparative scale, attachedto this scale,to read kilometres upto 60 kilometres. A passen1erirain covers this distancein 6 hours. Each part represents 5 km for thb distance scale and minutes for the time scale. Probfem 4. Construct comparative scalesfor the two units to measure upto versts and km respectively.
As it would be difiicuit to sub-dividethe minor divisions in the ordinary way, it is done with the help of the vernier. The graduations on the vernier are derived from those on the primary scale. Similarly, w i l l b e 0. The vernier divisions are marked in the same d i r e c t i o na s t h a t o f t h e m a i n s c a l e ‘ ii Engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook The length of each division of vernier scale is greater.
Divide each of tl]ese partsinto l0 equalpartsto sholv decjmetres. Probfem a, lig. It may also be obtainedby setting-offa chordSe of 55″ Fill-upthe blanksin the followingsentences, usingappropriatewords,’ selectedfrom thosegivenin the brackets: a The ratio of the length of the drawing of the object. Answercto Ex. Showthe lengthof 7. Gdm on it. Constructa scaleof 1. Draw a diagonalscaleof R. Show the lengthof 3. Draw a scaleof showingmetresand decimetres, продолжение здесь to measure upto 8 metres.
Construct a diagonal scale of R. Show a length of metres on it. The distance between two points on a map is 5 ;’ ce 5.0 remote download 20 miles apart. The distance between Vadodaraand Surat is km. Find rhe disrance 2 6. Show on your scale the lengths 6.
A room of m3 volumeis shownby a cube of cm3 volume. M a r k a distance of 22 m on the scare. Find out the shrinkagefactor and the corrected R. The actual length of m is representedby a line of 15 cm on a drawing. Construct a vernier scale to read upto m. MJrk on the scale a length of m. Draw a vernier scale of R. Mark on the scale distinces of 2. Specialmethodsof d B i s e c t i na g line p engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook r p e n d i c u l a r s regularpolygons To draw inscr polygons Regular To draw parallel ines circles To dividea line 1 3.
With centre A and radius greater than A8, drarv arcs on both sides of A8. Further,CD bisectsAB at right angles. To bisecta given arc fig.
Let AB be the arc drawn with centre O. Adopt the same method a- Ceometrical Construclion 69 ,To draw perpendiculars: Problem To draw a perpendicular to a given line from a point within it fis. Let48 be the given line and p the point in it. Then PO is the required perpendkular. LetAB be the given line and p the point in it. Draw a linejoining p and e. Probfem S To draw a perpendicularto a given line from a point outside it fig. To draw Parallellines: Problem To draw a line through a given point, parallel to a given straight line fi8.
Let AB be the given line and Windows security essentials 2012 free download the Point. GeometricalConstruction 71 Frc. Let AB be the given line and Engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook the given distance.
CD is the required l i ne. To divide a line: Probfem a. To divide a given straight line into any number of e q u a l p a r t st f i g. Let AB be the given line to be divided into say, seven equal parts. To divide a Siven suai9htline into unequal Partstfig.
Drop 1 perpendicularfrom C to AB. To bisect an angle: Problem Io bisect a given angle fig’ ‘ Engineering drawing by nd bhatt free download ebook.
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